Arnold Toynbee Ideas about Islamic Civilization and the Extent Influenced by the Vision of Ibn Khaldun: A Descriptive and Analytical Study
Ibn e Khaldun (1406 C.E.) has been an imminent scholar and well known for his work in the study of civilization. His vision regarding Civilization holds the significant place according to the philosophers of history. Arnold J. Toynbee (1975 C.E.) is one such prominent thinker who not only applauded the thoughts of Ibn e Khaldun but was influenced by Ibn e Khaldun’s views as it can be seen in Toynbee’s book: “A Study of History”. As a philosopher of history, he has much contribution in the field; He interlinks History with civilization. He presented a thoughtful book surrounding his civilizational vision; which explains the causes of world’s ups and downs. Although he presented a quality research about the division of the civilizations in the light of religion, many aspects of his work need to be reassessed. As per his understanding of world civilizations, he represents twenty-one civilizations, but with the passage of time, the number reduces and now only five are left in the contemporary epoch. According to him, religion has played significant role in the rise and fall of civilizations through their various stages. This research will highlight his thought about Islam through a comparison between Toynbee and Ibn e Khaldun’s Islamic civilizational thoughts. The study will also mention several problems in his approach to the Islamic Civilization. Furthermore, along with due importance of both scholars in the subject of history, their authoritative status will be stated. This research aims to discuss some misconceptions of the West that are based on Toynbee's understating of Islamic civilization and history. And, consequently, it intends to improve relations between people of the west and east.