Islam and Disaster Communication via Online Media amid the Covid-19 in Indonesia: The Case of Nahdlatul Ulama, Muhammadiyah, and the Salafism
This article discusses disaster communication via website media carried out by three Islamic groups in Indonesia, namely Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), Muhammadiyah, and Salafi. The three of them represent the trend of Indonesian Islamic currents today. The Covid-19 presence requires the three groups to play strategic communication in educating their followers and the public in general. This paper uses media text approach related to inward communication (to Allah) and outward communication (to social context). This study concludes that from the inward communication perspective, NU, Muhammadiyah, and Salafis attempt to strengthen the faith of the people to be closer to God (Allah). NU and Muhammadiyah tend to prioritize rational theology and the necessity of reason in understanding Corona as evidence of God's existence, while Salafi emphasizes the theology of destiny and human sins. Meanwhile, in the perspective of outward communication, NU tends to communicate with the people about the Pandemic through Syafi'i fiqh narratives based on the Pesantren tradition, particularly regarding emergency law issues, and it does not fully translate Islamic teachings into real social transformative actions. Muhammadiyah is more involved in practical actions dan social activism to handle the Covid-19. Meanwhile, the Salafis through its salafus-salih manhaj approach encourage the community to fortify themselves from Corona with the prayers taught by the Prophet, as well as to engage in social actions. Therefore, it seems NU communicates the Covid-19 issue to the public through traditional normative fiqh texts; Muhammadiyah does not communicate much by using normative fiqh texts, but it develops social-practical fiqh texts, and Salafi emphasizes theological-normative texts that tend to play down the humans role in handling the Covid.