Rights of Non-Muslim and Sanctity of Human Life: In the Light of the Era of Prophet (S.A.W) and the Righteous Caliphate Periods
غیر مسلموں کے حقوق اور انسانی جان کی حرمت : عہدِنبویﷺو خلفائےراشدین کی روشنی میں
Islam guarantees the protection of life, property, honour, and dignity of all the members of society, regardless of their religion, colour, race or ethnicity. Sanctity of human life is the fundamental issue and Islam emphasized on it the most. Holy Quran declared the murder of a single person as the killing of all humanity. Islam always secured the rights of non-Muslims. Protecting the lives, dignity and property of non-Muslim living in an Islamic state is a duty of a Muslims in general and the Islamic State in particular. The manner in which the rights of non-Muslims were protected in the era of the Prophet (S.A.W) and the era of the Rightly Guided Caliphs is unprecedented. The Prophet (S.A.W) gave this protection constitutional and legal status through his teachings and practice. Our Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) declared that “The one who killed any Dhmmī would not get the fragrance of Paradise though its fragrance can be sensed at a distance of forty years journey”. In the era of the righteous caliphs, the rights of non-Muslims were also safeguarded. This article is a description of the rights of non-Muslims with reference to the sanctity of human life in Islam. It also throws light on the unique teachings of Islam regarding the fundamental rights of minorities in the period of the Prophet and the Rightly Guided Caliphs. A descriptive and analytical research methodology will be used in this research to obtain results and recommendations. The expected results and recommendations of the study will guide the Muslims and non-Muslims to harmonize the social set up around the globe.